Sunday, January 20, 2019

Database Normalization

What is Normalization?
Normalzation is a database design technique that reduces the data redundancy and dependency.
Let's start to see how we do normalization in sample data of football player information.
We will see how we procced from Un-normalized Form to First, Second, Third Normal Form step-by step.

Initially, our data is in un-normalized form. It contains composite or multiple values in an attribute (Clubs).
Player Name Clubs Agent Position
Ronaldo Juventus, Real Madrid, Manchester United, Sporting Lisbon Mandez Forward
Rooney DC United, Manchester United, Everton David Forward
Nani Manchester United, Sporting Lisbon Mandez Winger

1st Normal Form
Each column should contain a single value and each record have to be unique.
Player Name Club Agent Position
Ronaldo Juventus Mandez Forward
Ronaldo Real Madrid Mandez Forward
Ronaldo Manchester United Mandez Forward
Ronaldo Sporting Lisbon Mandez Forward
Rooney DC United David Forward
Rooney Manchester United David Forward
Rooney Everton David Forward
Nani Manchester United Mandez Winger
Nani Sporting Lisbon Mandez Winger

2nd Normal Form
Now, we are in 1NF. To make it 2NF, we need to define primary key.
Player Id Player Name Agent Position
1 Ronaldo Mandez Forward
2 Rooney David Forward
3 Nani Mandez Winger

Player Id Club
1 Juventus
1 Real Madrid
1 Manchester United
1 Sporting Lisbon
2 DC United
2 Manchester United
2 Everton
3 Manchester United
3 Sporting Lisbon

3rd Normal Form
There are data anomalies and inconsistencies in current design, for example:
+ If we deleted the "Ronaldo" and "Nani", we would inevitably delete the agent "Mandez" completely from the database.
+ We cannot add a new agent to the database unless we also add a player.
+ If "Mandez" retired from agent job, we would have to change it in all records in which he appears.
So, we will remove this transitive functional dependency in 3NF. Agents will be moved to another table and its id will be used as foreign key in Player table.
Player Id Player Name Agent Id Position
1 Ronaldo 1 Forward
2 Rooney 2 Forward
3 Nani 1 Winger

Agent Id Name
1 Mandez
2 David
Now, we have "Players", "Agents", "Players_Clubs" tables.
We can optimized by moving Clubs into "Clubs" table and linking its id as foreign key in "Players_Clubs" table.


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